My learning diary

Challenges of a multi-step flow with permalinks

I decided to invest my time into covering the edge cases that were not handled by Design #1. Refer to yesterday’s post for the context. The edge cases are:

  1. Forms which need data from the preceding forms
  2. Dynamic form links

I can deal with the first pain point by leveraging query parameters. A persistent Redux store is not needed (yet). A persistent Redux store is one which persists between page loads and refreshes.

On the other hand, building dynamic form links for step navigation is still a huge headache for me.

This is how you configure MultiStepFormPageTemplate in the routing configuration file:

// Warning: I wrote these lines without any help from the compiler.
const stepLinks = [
  [PageComponent1, '/path1'],
  [PageComponent2, '/path1/:param1'],
  [PageComponent3, '/path1/:param1/path2'],
  [PageComponent4, '/path1/:param1/path2/path3'],
  [PageComponent5, '/path1/:param1/path4/:param2'],
return (
  {stepLinks &&[component, stepLink], stepNumber) => {
    return (
        path={stepLink} // A Reach router prop

You should have noticed stuff like :param1 and :param2. These are dynamic at runtime and can change based on user interaction. It isn’t possible to retrieve the preceding link (also known as a HTTP referer) (e.g. navigating from /path1/:param1/path2/:param2 to /path1/:param1) without hardcoding knowledge about the current link (e.g. /path1/:param1/path2/:param2). As such, I will need to either:

  1. Store the referer in a persistent Redux store. I may need to investigate Redux middlewares to do this.
  2. Move :param1 and :param2 to query parameters. Then, access the query string with Reach router’s useLocation().search. However, there are existing links which have :param1 and :param2. I don’t want to break existing implementations.

It seems I do not have much a choice other than investigating Redux middlewares to make Redux storage persistent so that I can store the referers. If I can persist the Redux storage, I would want to cache the user’s input from the previous forms as well so that he/she can navigate to a form containing his/her recent response.

These concerns look like things that a multi-step form library should have covered. Unfortunately, frontend components are not obliged to provide out-of-the-box state management.

The multi-step component libraries I know of in the wild are not suitable. They compel me to conduct an overhaul and/or major copypasta of the current codebase. For instance, the libraries can come with their own frontend components. Users will need to reorganise the form into a JSON object. I used one a few years ago, for a closed source codebase. It was crazy - bulky and many LoC.

I don’t want to give up.

There isn’t much development to MultiStepFormPageTemplate. I created an additional prop interface and preserved query parameters. Here’s the code:

import React, { FC } from 'react';
import { navigate, RouteComponentProps, useLocation } from '@reach/router';

// Form component props must extend from HasRedirectOnSubmit
export interface HasRedirectOnSubmit extends RouteComponentProps {
    nextStepLink?: string;

interface Props extends RouteComponentProps {
    stepPage: FC<HasRedirectOnSubmit>;
    stepNumber: number;
    stepLinks: string[];

const hasPrevStep = (stepNumber: number) => {
    return stepNumber > 0;

const hasNextStep = (stepNumber: number, steps: string[]) => {
    return stepNumber < steps.length - 1;

const getNextStepLink = (stepNumber: number, steps: string[]) => {
    if (hasNextStep(stepNumber, steps)) {
        return steps[stepNumber + 1];
    return '';

const goToStep = (stepLink: string) => {
    return async (e: { preventDefault: () => void }) => {
        if (stepLink) {
            await navigate(stepLink);

export const MultiStepFormPageTemplate: FC<Props> = (props: Props) => {
    // These lines preserve the query params.
    const queryString = useLocation().search;
    const previousStepLink = props.stepLinks[props.stepNumber - 1] + queryString;
    const nextStepLink = getNextStepLink(props.stepNumber, props.stepLinks) + queryString;
    return (
        <div className="multi-step-form">
            <div className="progress-bar"></div>
            <div className="form-page">
                <props.stepPage nextStepLink={nextStepLink} />
            <div className="step-navigation">
                <div className={hasPrevStep(props.stepNumber) ? 'show' : 'hide'}>
                    <button onClick={goToStep(previousStepLink)}>
                <div className={hasNextStep(props.stepNumber, props.stepLinks) ? 'show' : 'hide'}>
                    <button onClick={goToStep(nextStepLink)}>

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